The funding, to go to local councils in England, is in addition to the £831 million already provided to councils for road maintenance this year and the £3 billion the Government has committed over the next four years.
The Department for Transport (DfT) said that the severe weather at the end of last year had left many local roads in a poor condition.
Transport Secretary Philip Hammond said: “Millions of motorists across the country have their daily drives ruined by potholes. And the awful winter weather we had this year is only going to make that problem worse.
“That is why, despite the tough financial position we are in, we are going to give councils over £100 million extra to help carry out much-needed repairs to England’s roads.”
He added: “I am determined to see the winter damage to our roads fixed as quickly as possible and we will be working with councils to make sure that happens.
“This money should make a real difference to the millions of drivers who are fed up with having to continually battle against dangerous potholes, giving them safer and smoother journeys.”
The extra funding has been made possible because of savings the DfT made earlier in the financial year.
Councillor Peter Box, chairman of the Local Government Association’s (LGA) economy and transport board, said: “Councils filled in more than two million potholes last year and, following the coldest December on record, face an enormous task to keep roads in a safe condition this year.
“It is good news the Government has responded to the concerns of local authorities by agreeing to the LGA’s request for extra money to fix potholes caused by unprecedented winter weather.
“Even as council budgets are being cut, it is vital that road maintenance is sufficiently funded over the coming years if we are to avoid roads crumbling into disrepair. This extra money announced today is an important contribution.”